A word is the smallest unit of language that may be uttered in isolation without meaning.

Word may be composed to form a sentence.


1   Study

The study of the history of words is called etymology.

2   Form

2.2   Spelling

Words in a language with a writing system have a spelling.

Formally, a word is a string formed from the alphabet of some language.

2.3   Syntactic

A word consists of one or more morphemes.

One of these morphemes bears the core meaning of the word, and is called the "stem".

2.4   Semantic

A word consists of one or more meanings (called "word senses").

Word senses separate related meanings, such as those in

  • "John runs to the store."
  • "She runs her finger through her hair."
  • "The train runs between Boston and New York."

2.4.1   Amelioration

Amelioration is a type of semantic change in which a previously bad word takes on a good connotation. It has occurred for "terrific", "wicked", and "luxury".

2.4.2   Word-sense disambiguation (WSD)

Word-sense disambiguation is the problem of identifying which sense (meaning) of a word is used in a given sentence.

The solution to this problem impacts other computer-related writing including search engines, anaphora resolution,_ coherence, and inference.   History

WSD was first formulated into a distinct computational task during the early days of machine translation in the 1940s.

Warren Weaver, in his famous 1949 memorandum on tranlation, first introduced the problem in a computational context.

Currently, WSD system achieve sufficiently high levels of accuracy on a variety of word types and ambiguities.   Technique

A disambiguation process requires two strict things:

  • A dictionary to specify the sense which are to be disambiguated
  • A corpus of language data to be disambiguated

3   Properties

A word is complex if it consists of more than one morpheme. For example, "un-break-able".

3.1   Homophony

Homophony is phonological ambiguity; when two expressions have the same phonological form but different senses_. For example "to", "two", and "too".

A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning. The words may be spelled the same, such as "rose" (flower) and "rose" (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as "to", "two", and "too". The words may different only in part of speech, such as "experiment" (the noun) and "experiment" (verb).

Syllables are almost always ambiguous in isolation, meaning that they can be interpreted as providing incomplete information abut the word the speaker is intending to communicate.[1]

3.2   Homography

Homography is orthographical ambiguity; when two words are spelled the same but have different meanings.

4   Recognition

Word recognition is the ability of a reader to recognize written words correctly.

For words, distributional criteria may be either morphological or syntactical.

5   Classification

Words are classified into syntactic categories during lexical analysis.

The task of classifying words into their parts of speech and labeling them accordingly is known as part-of-speech (POS) tagging or word-category disambiguation.

POS tagging algorithms fall into two distinctive groups: rule-based and stochastic. E. Brill's tagger, one of the first and widely used English POS-taggers, employs rule-based algorithms.

5.1   Synonym

A synonym is a semantic relation.

A pair of words are synonyms iff they have similar meanings.

(iff (synonym x y)
     (and (!= (spelling x)
              (spelling y))
          (!= (pronunciation x)
              (pronunciation y))
          (== (meaning x)
              (meaning y))))

Example: ("stone", "rock") (nouns) Example: ("go", "leave") (verbs) Example: ("quickly", "rapidly") (adverbs) Example: ("long", "extended") (adjectives) Example: ("war", "armed conflict") (noun phrases)

5.2   Homonym

A homonym is a word that share spells and pronunciation but my have different meanings. A homonym is both a homograph and a homophone.

The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.

Examples of homonym are the pair stalk (part of a plant) and stalk (follow prey) and the pair left (past tense of leave) and left (opposite of right).

A distinction is made between "true" homonyms and polysemes.

5.3   Auto-antonym

An auto-antonym is a word with a homograph which is also an antonym. For example "inflammable" which can mean either "combustible" or "noncombustible", "sanction" which can mean either "permit" or "penalize", and "bolt" which can mean "leave quickly" or "fix".

6   Subclasses

Type of words are called lexical categories or word classes.

6.1   Lexical category

A lexical category is a category that is open class [*]. Lexical categories tend to have meaning.

6.1.1   Functional category

A functional category is a category that is closed class.

A function word is a word that serves to cement content words together.

Function words include:

  • Pronouns
  • Auxiliary verbs

Function words make up a small percentage of a language. (Less than 1%)

7   Properties

Some words have certain structural requirements. (Binding theory)

A word is regular if it follows the rules of morphological transformation otherwise it is irregular.

Example: (walk, walks, walking, walked, walked)


Example: (eat, eats, eating, ate, eaten) Example: (catch, catches, catching, caught, caught) Example: (cut, cuts, cutting, cut, cut)


Example: (mouse, mice) Example: (goose, geese) Example: (ox, oxen) Example: (go, went) Example: (fly, flew)

8   Production

Lexical (=derivational) morphology is a branch of morphology that studies the formation of new words.

(Word formation)

Either a word formation processes is productive or a word formation process is non-productive.

Lexicalization is the process of adding words, set phrases, or word patterns to a language.

9   Use-mention distinction

The use–mention distinction is a foundational concept of analytic philosophy,[1] according to which it is necessary to make a distinction between using a word (or phrase) and mentioning it.


Cheese is derived from milk.


"Cheese" is derived from the Old English word "cyse".

10   Etymologies

# Misc critical, criticism finite, definite, indefinite

underloading vs. overloading
  • overloading - word has too many meanings; impossible to parse
  • "underloading" - word has multiple meanings, but one is used ordinarily

unless - earlier onlesse, from on lesse (than) "on a less condition (than)," the first syllable originally on, but the negative connotation and the lack of stress changed it to un-.

# Unknown casuistry - The use of clever but unsound reasoning. Sophistry. crock vagary iconoclastic catalyst slipshod - characterized by a lack of care, thought, or organization workshop - a room which provides both the area and tools that may be required for the manufacture of goods. they were the only places of production until advent of industrialisation and the development of factories mundane - lack excitement mariposa doctrinaire - seeking to impose a doctrine in all circumstances without regard to practical considerations mercurial - subject to sudden changes of mood or mind fickle - changing frequently seem - to befit, conform to, from Old Norse pedantry - excessive concern with rules cabal - a secret political clique foundry - A factory that produces metal castings. foley verisimilitude curmudgeon - bad tempered person foreman - a worker who supervises and direct other workers flattery folly conceit calumny flannet - Bland fluent talk indulged in to avoid addressing a difficult subject or situation directly: "a simple admittance of ignorance was much to be preferred to any amount of flannel" wanderlust - a strong desire to travel garret - top-floor attic room drivel - silly nonsense earnest dismay pillar clamor hurl tumescence docility succumb exonerate seep aberration morbid felicitous - callous - hard skin, unfeeling punctuated - sublate - assimilate a smaller object into a larger one coquetry deprave immanence - inwardness derogatory inimical saraband dumb, stupid laureate - a person who is honored with an award for outstanding intellectual or creative achievement abeyance - A state of temporary disuse or suspension. > But this Marsyas has often brought me to such a pass, that I have felt as if I could hardly endure the life which I am leading (this, Socrates, you will admit); and I am conscious that if I did not shut my ears against him, and fly as from the voice of the siren, my fate would be like that of others,—he would transfix me, and I should grow old sitting at his feet. exhort - strongly encourage sire - the male parent of an animal despot - a ruler who holds absolute power; typically in a cruel way wantonness - reckless freedom from inhibition; abandon bade / bid - utter to assent - expression od approvial descant - Talk tediously or at length encomiast - A person who publicly praises or flatters someone else carouse - Drink plentiful amounts of alcohol and enjoy oneself with others in a noisy, lively way predicament - ere - before potation - a drink libation - a drink poured out as an offering to a deity pantomime hiterhto conclude malady bias preoccupied underwritten recently come to fore I mean to signal heyday mnimalism - aesthetic research into the essential conditions of painting or as an excercise in the phenomenology of aesthetic perception hermetically belied broadly alluded explicit departures from and rebellions against yet of all the disciplines ready to acknowledge the limitations of the presupposition of art's autonomy, contemporary analytic philosophy of art has been the slowest a brief examination of the owl Minerva needs a functioning runway from which to take off; Minerva is the Roman version of Athena pernicious underlie art qua art puritanical subservient to ulteriror or external purposes gibber altogether bereft paltry or even flawed contention putattive facts centripetal However, this conclusion in a non sequitur preclude sledge - to strike Old Enlish; sledgehammer is redundant pleonastic - repettion of same sense in different word, e.g. sledge hammer entail pertinent tantamount putative warrant eschew - shun, avoid; from Old French eschiver; related to shy germane apposite inasmuch deepen or pervert moral understanding longstanding fall foul enlarge are all part and parcel of the same process deadpan proffered presuppose commerce requisite vs. required redound contend advert contra autonomomism circumscribe - entrepreneur - one who undertakes

prehensile- from Latin prehensus, pp. of prehendere "to grasp, to seize," from prae- "before" (see pre-) + -hendere, related to hedera "ivy," via notion of "clinging,
  • prehensile feet and tails are used for cling objects

enterprise - an undertaking; Old French entreprendre "undertake, take in hand, from entre "between" + prende "to take", contraction of prehendere (see prehensile). Abstract sense of readiness to undertake challenges, spirit of daring

under - below
underage - under + age undertake - take under understand - stand in the mist of

procrastinate - from pro- "forward" (see pro-) + crastinus "belonging to tomorrow," from cras "tomorrow," of unknown origin. prominence - from Latin prominentem (nominative prominens), prp. of prominere "jut or stand out," from pro- "before, forward" (see pro-) + minere "to project," from minae "projections, threats" (see menace). welched - fail to honor (a debt) neither inefficacious - ineffective dubious - doubtful; from duo "two", with a sense of "of two minds, undecided between two things" flourish - "to blossom, grow," from Old French floriss-, stem of florir "blossom, flower, bloom, flourish," from Latin florere "to bloom, blossom, flower," figuratively "to flourish, be prosperous," indolence - avoidance of activity or exertion niggardly - stingily irremediable - encyclopedia - trenchant - cutting wholly - whole + ly instead - in stead shade - to screen from light umbrage - shadow; from umbra "shade" cockeyed - sentiment - ante - stake put up in oker before receiving cards narcotic - a drug affecting mood for nonmedical purposes pupil - minor; used in the sense of eyes in the sense of the reflection one sees in another diminutive - unusually small heed - attention apprehend - grasp; resulted in apprentice desideratum - an object of desire stature - a person's natural height palatable - pleasant to taste soirée - An evening party or gathering, typically in a private house, for conversation or music pejorative - expresses contempt or distaste supplant - supersede and replace credo - statement of beliefs or aims that guide someone's actions eminence - recognized superiority, especially withing a particular sphere or profession inveterate - having a long-established habit that is unlikely to change superfluity - excessively large amount of something retinue nonplus - surprise someone so much that they are unsure how to react; literally "no more, no further" satin - glossy surface and dull back, usually made of silk and therefore expensive palaver - idle chatter; sailors' slang, from Portuguese palavra "word, speech, talk," traders' term for "negotiating with the natives" in West Africa, metathesis of Late Latin parabola "speech, discourse," lambast - to beat or whip severely; from lam + baste "to thrash" thronging - present in great numbers trist - secret meeting from Dutch moer "moor"

moor - waste ground morass - swamp

chignon - a roll or knot of hair worn at the nape of the neck akathisia - restlessness anorgasmia - dysfunction that prevents orgasm conspire, aspire loquacity - talkativeness Sybaris - a city famous in the ancient world for luxury and gluttony anthem - a hymn of praise or loyalty routine - course of action to be followed regularly; French; route + ine (suffix for diminutive purpose) bracket - architectural support; juts on a building girder - large steel beam, used as a framework for buildings frieze - wide central section of an entablature tinker - a person who travels from place to place mending metal utensils as a way of making a living, attempting to repair something nuts - bolts - build (n.) - style of construction build (v.) - from "be" in the sense of "to dwell" dough - make - wrenching - twisting dossier - bundle of papers; from dos "back", supposedly because the bundle bore a label on the back, from Latin dossum, variant of dorsum "back." surefire - 1864, American. sure + fire. Originally of rifles troop - "body of soldiers," from Middle French troupe para- - defense against

parachute - para "defense against" + chute "a fall"
paratrooper - parachute + trooper



# Greek from Greek: ek "out" + statis "a stand"

ecstasy (ekstasis) - to be or stand outside oneself;
from Greek polemikos "of war, warlike, belligerent; skilled in war, fit for service; like an enemy, stirring up hostility,"
polemic - a contentious argument, usually to establish falsity of a contrary belief

from Greek allos "other, different" (see allo-) from Greek askein "to exercise, train,"

! originally "to train for athletic competition, practice gymnastics, exercise." ascetic -
from Greek austerios "bitter, harsh"
austere - severe or strict
from Greek bole "a throwing, a casting, the stroke of a missile, bolt, beam,"
parabole, parable - comparison; from para "alongside" + bole "a throwing" symbol - from syn- "together" (see syn-) + bole anabolic - pertaining to the process of building up; ana "up, upward"
from Greek chrono "time"
anachronism - error in computing time or find dates; sense of "something out of harmony with the present" first recorded in 1816 laconic - concise or terse (e.g. Military jargon)
from Greek didonai "to give"
dote antidote - to give against
from Greek genes "born" (see -gen)
gene genesis
from Greek kolla "glue"
protocol - first sheet glued onto a manuscript; proto "first".kja Meaning "diplomatic rules of etiquette" first recorded 1896
from Greek Lakonikos, from Lakon "person from Lakonia," the district around Sparta in southern Greece in ancient times, whose inhabitants were famously proud of their brevity of speech.
from of Greek morphe "form, shape; beauty, outward appearance"
ectomorph - ecto "external" morph Morpheus - shape maker metamorphosis
from Greek pheme "talk"
from Greek phono "sound, voice"
phone phoneme phonology xylophone - xylo "wood" + phone
from Greek platys "flat, broad"
plate platform boilerplate - text of routine nature
from Greek praxis "practice"
praxis - practice, as distinguished from theory;
from Greek sema "sign"
semiotic semantic
from Greek sthenos "strength,"
asthenia - without strength
from Greek taktike (tekhne) "(art of) arrangement,"
tactic syntactic
from Greek tithenai "to put"

epithet - a descriptive title; epi "in addition" synthesis - syn 'together, same' - put together from Greek apotheke "depot, storehouse," literally "a place where things are put away,"

from Greek thema "a proposition, subject, deposit,"
theme anathema - one that is greatly reviled or shunned
from Greek thesis "a proposition,"
thesis - a proposition antithesis - The complete or exact opposite of something or someone; hypothesis "base, basis of an argument, supposition," , literally "a placing under," from hypo- "under" (see sub-) + thesis "a placing, proposition"

from Greek xeno-, comb. form of xenos "a guest, stranger, foreigner"

# Latin

from Latin absinthum "wormwood" from Latin acerbus "harsh, bitter"

acrid exacerbation - ex "throughly" - acerbus "harsh, bitter"
from Latin acrem (nominative acer) "keen, sharp, pointed, piercing; acute, ardent, zealous"
eager acrid - bitter
from Latin aether "upper pure, bright air; the sky"
ether - upper regions of space ethereal - of the highest regions of teh atmosphere ethernet
from Latin ambitionem (nominative ambitio) "a going around," especially to solicit votes, hence "a striving for favor, courting, flattery; a desire for honor, thirst for popularity," noun of action from pp. stem of ambire "to go around"
ambition - to go around ambient - surround, encircling
from Latin apex "summit"
from Latin arrogatus "to claim for oneself"
arrogant - assuming, overbearing arrogate
from Vulgar Latin barra "bar, barrier,"
debar - to officially exclude or prohibit
from Latin cadere "to fall"
case - what befalls one; state of affairs cadaver - dead body cascade - to fall decadent - in a state of decline or decay (from a former state of excellence)
from Latin calare "to announce solemnly, call out"
calendar intercalate
from Latin capere "to take"
capable - receptive, able to grasp or hold accept - to take (what is offered); ad "to" except - to take out; ex "out" deceive - to take from; de "from" perceive - to take throughly (with the mind); per "thoroughly" receive - to take back; re "back"
from Latin cardinails "principal, chief, essential"
cardinal points - north, south, east, west (1540s) cardinal virtues - justice, prudence, temperance, fortitude, (+Christian faith, hope, charity) cardinal sins (1600)
from Latin cavere "to beware, take heed"
cave, cavern - vault, cellar cave (v.) - to hollow out cage - hollow place decoy - perhaps from Dutch kooi "cage," used of a pond surrounded by nets, into which wildfowl were lured for capture caveat
from Latin circus "ring, circular line" (e.g. Circus Maximus)

circle circus from Latin circare "go about, wander, traverse"

search research
from Latin clarus "clear (of sounds)"
clear declare - make clear; from Latin de (intesive prefix) + clarare "clarify"
from Latin extraneus "foreign, external," from extra "outside of" (see extra).
from Old French estrange
strange - foreign; sense of queer is attested from 14c
from Latin facere "to do, factor "doer, maker"
factor - agency, deputy
! The use in mathematics is attested from 1837.

benefactor - to do well factory factitious - artificially created manufacture - "manu" hand magnificent - to make great office - work doing. ops "power, might"

from Latin fallere "to trip, cause to fall;"
fall - to fall; fail, decay, die landfall - land + fall in the sense of happen downfall - ruin, fall from high condition false - fake, incorrect, mistaken, deceitful. from Latin falsus "deceived, erroneous, mistaken," pp of fallere fail - be lacking, miss, not succeed default - de "away" + fallere "to deceive, to cheat; to escape notice"
from Latin ferre "to carry"
ferry confer - carry with infer - carry in transfer - carry across; from trans "across" refer - carry back
from Latin genus "race, stock, family, kind, order"
gender - kind, sort, class
! the male-or-female sense from early 15c. As sex took on erotic qualities in 20c., gender came to be the common word used for "sex of a human being,"
from Latin gignere "to bear, beget,"
from male "badly"
malign malignancy - badly born
from Latin grex "flock, herd"
agora - assembly greagrious - living in flocks; sense of "sociable" first recorded in 1789 egregious - distinguished; from ex grege "rising above the flock"; sense of "conspicuously offensive" arose late 16c. congregate segregate
from Latin gustare "to taste"
disgust - "dis" opposite of
from Latin hiatus "opening, aperture, rupture, gap,"
hiatus - break or opening in a material object
from Latin haerere "to stick"
hesitate cohere - to stick together; com "together"
from Latin indigentem "need, want"
indigent - poor, needy
from Latin lentus "slow, viscous, supple"
lithe relent - re (intensive)
from Latin lucidus "clear"
lucid elucidate - making something clear
from Latin radere "to scrape"
rash raze erase
from Latin magnus "great, large, big"
magnate - wealthy and influential businessperson
from Latin mango "dealer, trader, slave-dealer,"
monger - a dealer in a specific commodity
from Latin mansionem "dwelling"
mansion menial - pertaining to a household; Sense of "lowly, humble, suited to a servant" is recorded by 1670s.
from Latin masculus "masculine, male, worthy of a man"
male emasculate - to make unmanly; ex "out of"
from Latin mater
matrix - uterus, womb, pregant animal; from Old Frenc matrice
! ense of "place or medium where something is developed" is first recorded 1550s; sense of "embedding or enclosing mass" first recorded 1640s. Logical sense of "array of possible combinations of truth-values" is attested from 1914.


from Latin medium "the middle"
mean medium medial mediate
from Latin mergere "to dip, dip in, immerse, plunge,"
merge - to plunge or sink in submerge emerge immersion - in + merge
from Latin metron "measure"
parameter - para "beside, subsidiary" meter
from Latin monere "advise, warn"
monitor admonish - remind, warn firmly admonition
from Latin opus "a work, labor"
magnum opus - great work; a person's greatest work opulence - wealth operose - involving much labor operation - action, performance, work office - opera - a drama sung; literall a work operation - a working copious - plentiful hors d'oeuvre - apart from the main work inured - accustomed to something unpleasant; from obsolete ure "work, practice, exercise, use,"
from Latin orexis "appetite, desire"
from Latin par "equal, equal-sized, well-matched"
par - equality; par excellence - best par none para- - prefix, meaning "alongside" pair au pair - of the arrangement; of the girl; French, literally "on an equal footing"
from Latin parare "make ready, furnish, provide, arrange, order, to bring into"
pare - arrange; trim; adorn paradigm - pattern; literally "show side by side" prepare - make ready before. prae "before" appear - to come into view; ad "to" parent apparent - visible transparent - to bring into sight across, see through parade repair - irreparable
from Late Latin passionem (nominative passio) "suffering, enduring," from pp. stem of Latin pati "to suffer, endure,"
! Sense of "sexual love" first attested 1580s; that of "strong liking, enthusiasm, predilection" is from 1630s.
from Latin pellere "to push, beat, drive"
pulse catapult - Greek; kata "against + pallein "to toss" impulse - act on impelling, a thrust impel - to push, urge on; in "into" + pellere expel - drive out; repel - drive away; re "back" dispel - drive apart; dis "away" propel - push forward compel - to drive together felt (n.) - something beaten appeal - to call to a higher judge; ad "to"
from Latin pestare "to pound"
pesto - italian sauce of cheese, olive oil, basil, and pine nuts piston - large pestle
from Latin pius "faithful, loyal, devout"
pious - devoutly (religious) expiation - make amend; ex "completely"
from Latin placere
please placent placate supplicate
from Latin plenus "complete, full"
plenty plenitude - completeness
from Latin plere "to fill"
plenum - the state of being full supply - make full; sub "up from below"
from Latin plexus "entangled"
perplex - entagled through. per "through" perplexity - inability to deal with or understand something complicated
from Latin ponere "put"
pose - put in a certain position expose - to make visible propose - put forward suppose - put under posit - assume (as fact) position - exposition - a setting forth of the meaning or purpose
from Latin portus "harbor"
importune - to make onself troublesome; in "not, opposite of" + portus importunate - annoyingly pressing
from Latin proprius "one's own, particular to itself,"
proper - "adapted to some purpose, fit, apt; commendable, excellent" appropriate - "specially suitable, proper" note: proper is more like 'correct', while appropriate is more like 'generally correct'. ie. 'more appropriate' vs. 'more proper'
from Latin providentia "foresight"
provide prudence - careful, economy
from Latin pungere "to prick"
pungent - sharp (of pain or grief) repugnance - intense disgust poignant - painful to physical or mental feeling; sharpness
from Latin quarere "to seek"
query exquisite - extremely beautiful and typically delicate
from Latin quietus "resting, at rest"
quiet - coy - quiet, modest. Meaning "shy" emerged late 14c. Meaning "unwilling to commit" is 1961.
from Latin regere "to guide, to direct"

ergo - therefore; "out of" ex + regere erect - e "up" + regere regal - from Latin regionem "direction, boundary, district"

from Latin regula "straight, stick"

regular regulate from Old Frenc reille

from Old French riule,
rule ruler
from Latin regnum "kingship, dominion, rule, realm,"
from Latin regimen "rule, guidance"
regime - system of government regimen - act of governing

realm from Latin rector "ruler, governor, guide,"

rector - rule rectory
from Latin regens "ruler, governor,"
from Latin surgere "to rise," contraction of surrigere "to rise," from sub "up from below" + regere "to keep straight, guide"
surge - fountain, stream upsurge - insurgent - rise up, rise against, revolt insurrect
from Latin specere "look at"
respect - to look at again despite - look down on respite - a short period of rest from something difficult or unpleasant
from Latin rota "wheel"

roll from Latin rotula "lttile wheel"

control - "contra" against; a counter, register. From a medieval method of checking accounts by a duplicate register. Then, "to check, test, or verify by evidence or experiments". Finally, "to have power over"
from Latin ruptura "the breaking (of an arm or leg), fracture,"
rupture disrupt - to break apart abrupt - break off corrupt - com (intesive) + rumpere interrupt - to break between bankrupt - a broken bench
from Latin scala, from scandere "to climb"
scan - "mark off verse in metric feet," (poetry) (the connecting notion is of the rising and falling rhythm of poetry)
! Sense of "look at closely, examine" first recorded 1540s. The (opposite) sense of "look over quickly, skim" is first attested 1926.

scale - to climb echelon - rung of a ladder

from Latin sentire "to feel, sense"
sentinel - feel, perceive by the senses sentiment scent
from Latin servare "to watch, to keep safe"
observe - to watch over preserve - guard beforehand conserve - to guard (com is intensive)
from Latin servire "to serve, to be a slave"
serve deserve - serve well, de "completely"; be entitled to (because of good serve)
from Latin splendere "be bright, shine, gleam, glisten,"
splender spelendid
from Latin solari "to comfort"
solace - "comfort" console - "com" (intensive prefix") consolate consolatory consolation console - 1706, "a cabinet; an ornamental base structure," from French console "a bracket"; origin unknown
from Latin solentem, prp. of solere "be accustomed,"
obsolete - ob "away" + solere obsolesce (v.) - to grow old insolent - contemptuous, arrogant, haughty
from Latin somnus "sleep,"
somnolence - drowsiness
from Latin spiritus "soul, courage, vigor, breath"
spirit - animating principle in man and animal respitory
from Latin suavis "sweet"
suave sweet - pleasing to the senses; persuade - convince; Latin per "throughly" + suadere "to advise"
from Latin summa "total number, essence";

sum - amount of money; sense of "highest" comes from Roma custom of adding numbers and placing the sum on top instead of bottom summit - top of a hill summa cum laude - with highest praise summary - gist consume - com + sum "to take" assume - to take; ad "to, up" + sub + "under" + emere "to take"

resume - take again assuasive - soothing; 1708

deposit - de "away" + ponere "put" position -

from usus "a use"
use usurp - seize for use
from Latin taedium "weariness, disgust"
tedium tedious
from Latin templum "plank rafter"
temple - building for worship; latin templum template - templet "horizontal piece under a beam" from Latin templum, plank rafter contemplate - observe; latin; com (intensive) + templum (temple)
from Vulgar Latin torciare "to twist."
torque? truss - collection of things bound together
from Latin uter "either (of two)"
from Latin neuter "of the neuter gender," literally "neither one nor the other,"
neuter - to make neutral neutral - balanced; take neither side
from Latin versus "turned toward or against"

versus from Latin versionem

version - "a turning"
from Latin vertere "to turn"
invert - 'in' in, on - to turn upside down introvert - extrovert - a turning out
from Anglo-French vigour, Old French vigor, from Latin vigorem (nominative vigor) "liveliness, activity, force," from vigere "be lively, flourish, thrive,"
vigor vigil
from Latin nihil "nothing"
nil nihilate - annihilate - reduced to nothing
from Latin illus "any" (nullus "not any")
null - not any; ne "not" annul - to make to nothing; "ad" to
from Latin radicis "root"
radish eradicate - root out; ex "out"
from Latin cedere "go, move" (see cede).

cede - "to yield, give place; to give up some right or property," succeed - move after; sub "after" + cede

! Meaning "accomplishment of desired end" (good success) first recorded 1580s.

sucedure proceed - move forward process - "fact of being carried on" (e.g. in process)

! Meaning "course or method of action" is from mid-14c.; sense of "continuous series of actions meant to accomplish some result" (the main modern sense) is from 1620s.

procedure - manner of moving forward

from Latin gradus "step"
grade graduate - gradation - climax degrade - degree - aggress - ad "to" + gradus. 1610s, "unprovoked attack," from French aggression congress - com "together" + gradus. c.1400, "body of attendants; also "meeting of armed forces" progress regress transgress - trans "across" - to step across
from Latin auxiliaris "helpful," from auxilium "aid, help, support,"
from Latin figura "a shape, form, figure,"
figure - visible form or appearance (of a person) figure of speech disfigure figure (of) eight
from Latin schema "shape, figure"
scheme - figure (of speech) schematic - pertaining to schemes; noun meaning diagram first in 1929
from Latin forma "shape, form"
form inform - form into, instruct; in "into. varied with enform until 1600; sense of "report news" in late 14c. deform - to disfigure formula - "small form" Fortran - formula + translation platform - plan of action; literally flat form. from plat "flat" + form
from Latin fornir "to provide"
furnish - furnish, accomplish perform - carry into effect, completely provide; per "completely"
from Latin fateri (pp. fassus) "acknowledge, confess, admit"
profess profession - occupation one professes to be skilled in confess
from Latin structura "a fitting together, adjustment, building," from structus, pp. of struere "to pile, build, assemble," related to strues "heap,"
destruct construct instruct structure unstructured
from Latin simulare "to make like"
similar simulate semblance - assemble - from ad- "to" (see ad-) + simulare "to make like" ensemble - a group of complementary parts that contribute to a single effect
from Latin externus "outside, outward"
extern - "outsider"
from Latin firmare "to fix, settle, or strengthen"
farm - fixed payment; Sense of "tract of leased land" is first recorded early 14c; that of "cultivated land" (leased or not) is 1520s. firm - strong affirm - to strengthen confirm - com (intesive) + firm (strong) -- guess here
from Latin tropus "a figure of speech,"
from Latin iectare "to throw"

eject - ex "out" + jet project - a plan; from Latin pro "forward" + jet "to throw"; from Latin iectare reject - "to throw back" object - target; from ob "over, against" + jet

obscure - ob + scurus "covered"; similar to sky obliterate - to strike out (letters)

subject - from sub "to place under" + jet subjugation - forced submission to control by others

from Latin ter "thrice,"
ternary - consisting of three tertiary - "of the third order, rank, degree, etc.,"
from Latin from finis "boundary, end"
define - to end finish -
from Latin species "kind, sort"
species - individual, particular specific - having a special quality special spice - goods, wares
from Latin artem "work of art; a practical skill"
art inert - from Latin inertem "unskilled, inactive" from in "without" + ars "skill" fine arts - "those which appeal to the mind and the imagination" first recorded 1767.
from Latin discere "to learn"
discern - perceive or recognize discriminate - to divide, seperate
from Latin doctrina "teaching"
doctor - teacher doctrine indoctrinate
from Latin signare, from signum "mark, token, indication, symbol"
sign signal signify signature significant
from Latin aedificium "building,"
from Latin constructus, pp. of construere "to heap up"
construct construe
from Latin ordinem (nominative ordo) "row, rank, series, arrangement," originally "a row of threads in a loom,"
order inordinate - unordered; Sense of "immoderate, excessive" is from notion of "not kept within orderly limits. ordinary
from Latin series "row, chain, series," from serere "to join, link, bind together, put,"
exert - ex "out" + serere "join" series insert
from Latin securus; from se "free from" + cura "care"
cure - care secure - without care from sure - secure; from Old French sur, seur ensure - make sure assure - to render sure insure - spelling variant of ensure insecure - not without care from
from Latin inimicus "hostile, unfriendly; an enemy"; from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + amicus "friend" related to amare "to love"
! Most words for "personal enemy" cover also "enemy in war," but certain languages have special terms for the latter, e.g. Greek polemioi (distinct from ekhthroi), Latin hostis, originally "stranger" (distinct from inimicus), Russian neprijatel' (distinct from vrag). enemy - early 13c., from Old French enemi (12c.), earlier inimi (9c.)

# Old English from Old English sacan "to deny, refuse"

sake - purpose, a cause at law, crime, dispute, guilt forsaken - abandoned; deserted. from for- "completely"
neither - contraction of Old English nahwaber "not of two", from na "no" + hwaber "which of two" (see whether)
! spelling altered c.1200 by association with either
from Old English wrath "anger"
wrath - vindicative anger
from Old English hraþor "more quickly, earlier, sooner"
from Old English gietan "to grasp"
get forget - for "away, amiss, opposite"; to lose one's grip on
from Old English piþa "pith of plants," also "essential part,"
pith - the essential or vital part, gist, core, essence; pithy - concise and meaningful
from Old English an "one"
none - not one; ne "not"
from Old English leornian "to get knowledge, be cultivated, study, read, think about,"
from Old English tacen "sign, symbol, evidence" (related to tæcan "show, explain, teach")
token teach - "to show, point out"

# PIE from PIE spek "to see"

from PIE awi "bird"
auspex - "one who observes flights of birds for the purpose of taking omens," auspice - divine token
from Latin scopus "aim, target, watcher"

scope - extent conspicuous - standing out as to be clearly visible; con (intensive prefix) from Latin specere "look at"

respect - admire deeply
from Latin "spectrum"
spectacle spectrum - apparation; Meaning "band of colors formed from a beam of light" first recorded 1670s. spectre - an image, figure, ghost spectral - ghostly inspect - to look into
from PIE mag- "to knead, mix; to fashion, fit"
from PIE root bheid- "to split"
bit - small piece bite -
from PIE (s)plei- "to split, splice"
split splice splint
from PIE root pere "to assign, allot"

part - division, portion of a whole particle - small part or division of a whole particular - section of a whole participate - to partaker, share in, comrade impart - to give a part of (one's posessions) apart apartment compartment - part partitioned off proportion - due relation of one part to another; pro "for" + abaltive of partio "division" depart partitive - having the quality of dividing into parts parse - to state the parts of speech in a setence parcel - a portion of something part (v.) - to divide partisian - one who takes part with another partner - partition - division into shares partial - one-sided, biased

! Sense of "not whole, incomplete" is attested from late 14c.
party - that which is divided
! Sense of "gathering for social pleasure" is first found 1716, from general sense of persons gathered together (originally for some specific purpose, e.g. dinner party, hunting party).

partake - part taker

# French from French tirer "to draw (out), endure, suffer"

tier - row, rank, range retire - to retreat; from re "back" + tirer "draw" tirade - a long angry speech; uncertain orgin
from French carabine
carbine - short rifle carabineer - mounted soldier armed with a carbine
from Old French enui "annoyance"
annoy ennui - boredom

# Misc

from Old Norse skamt, neuter of skammr "short, brief,"
scant - barely sufficiently or adequate
from Proto-Germanic selda- "strange, rare"
seldom - rarely
from Proto-Germanic witjan
wit - mental capacity.
! form of intelligent humor; quip and repartee in 1540s

aesthetic - unique root haunting - poignant and evocative; difficult to ignore or forget

! "place frequently visited," c.1300, also in Middle English, "habit, custom" (early 14c.), from haunt (v.). The meaning "spirit that haunts a place, ghost" is first recorded 1843, originally in stereotypical U.S. black speech.
from Proto-Germanic kan- "be able to"

can cunning - learned, skillful; sense of skill in deceit is late 14c uncouth - unknown, uncertain, unfamiliar keen - brave and skillful

! sense of eager from mid 14c
from Old Norse þrifa "to clutch, grasp, grip"
thrive - grow vigorously;
1910, from French sabotage, from saboter "to sabotage, bungle," literally "walk noisily," from sabot "wooden shoe" (13c.), altered (by association with Old French bot "boot") from Middle French savate "old shoe,"
! In French, the sense of "deliberately and maliciously destroying property" originally was in reference to labor disputes, but the oft-repeated story that the modern meaning derives from strikers' supposed tactic of throwing old shoes into machinery is not supported by the etymology.

11   Notes

[*]"Open class" means that we can invent new terms (via neologism).

There are a number of words which are used for both their literal meaning and their opposites: