Wine is an `alcoholic drink`_ made from grapes_. (Rice wine?) For example, rice wine (sake).


1   Classification

1.1   Red

1.1.1   Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is often blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s.

1.1.2   Merlot


Merlot is a dark blue-colored wine grape variety, that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines.

1.1.3   Sherry

Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.

1.2   White

1.2.1   Chardonnay

Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used to make white wine. It originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand.

1.3   Vermouth

Vermouth is an wine fortified with various herbs or roots.

2   Grading

More important than the age of wine is the conditions when it was made, e.g. weather during a particular year, the soil, etc.

3   History

In vino veritas is a Latin phrase that means "in wine there is truth." The Greek expression is traced back to a poem by Alcaeus_. The Roman historian Tacitus described how the Germanic peoples always drank while holding councils, as they believed nobody could lie effectively when drunk.

Once a bottle of wine has been opened, a combination of heat and oxygen cause a chemical reaction (oxidation) that at first opens up the flavor. After some time, the quality of the wine begins to degrade and, if left too long, it turns acidic and vinegary.

4   Further reading

[1]What you don't understand about fine wine might hurt your business.

5   References

Wine is famously used to disguise the smell of poison

“The criteria for a good wine was [once] dramatically different than it is today,” says Kolleen Guy, associate professor of history at University of Texas at San Antonio. Initially, wine was judged using elements of Galenic medicine (hot, cold, wet, dry) to balance foods, and, into the 18th century, wine tasting meant a worker in a warehouse or cellar engaging in quality control. Poetic language such as green, cherry blossoms, and citrus only arose in the 19th century as the Industrial Revolution created a growing middle class and more emphasis on good taste.

Similarly, Rachel Speckan, an advanced sommelier, points out that the rise of wine as an intellectual pursuit only began in earnest in the 1970s. She cites the founding of the Wine & Spirits Education Trust at the time, as well as the first master sommelier examinations by the United Kingdom’s Court of Master Sommeliers. Both remain leading institutions. And while visiting a winery is now common, such intense interest in a wine’s origins and the viticulturists is relatively modern—a contrast to the traditional business-to-business nature of the wine industry.

Wine consumption per person, 2016. (liters)

Vatican: 56.2
France: 43.1
Switzerland: 37
Italy: 34.1
Greece: 27.4
Russia: 25.7
Germany: 25
Australia: 22.2
Spain: 21.7
UK: 21.2
Canada: 13.9
US: 9.9
Brazil: 1.6
China: 1.1
Turkey: 0.1
India: 0
Indonesia: 0
Saudi: 0

(Wine Institute)