Music (related to muse) is ...

There are many types of music including blues_, jazz, hip hop music.


1   Instruments

1.1   Woodwinds

A woodwind is an instrument that produces sound by splitting an exhaled air stream on a sharp edge. Some example of woodwind instruments include the clarinet, bassoon, piccolo, and saxophone.

The clarinet is an ancient instrument. It has metal pieces, without which the player could essentially play only the "white keys" of the piano. However, it's uncomfortable to play.

The saxophone is more modern.

2   History

Today, Deluxe versions of records are basically B-sides.

2.2   Electronic music

  • EDM
    • House (Chicago, 1980s)
      • UK Garage (UK, early 1990)
        • Grime (London, Early 2000)
      • Acid house (Chicago, 1980s)
        • Breakbeat hardcore (UK rave scene, late 1980s and early 1990s)
          • Drum and Bass / Jungle (Mid 1990s) (150 to 180 bpm)
            • Dubstep (London, Late 1990s)
        • Triphop (Bristol, early 1990s)
      • Ambient house (UK + Japan, 1980s)
    • Techno (Detroit, mid-to-late 1980s)
  • Synthpop (Germany, Japan, England, 1980s)
  • IDM (early 1990s)
    • Glitch (Germany 1990)
      • Glitch-hop
      • Glitch step

Diplo and M.I.A. dated for some time. "Paper Planes" helped propel both of their careers.

Popular samples:

3   History

in 2000, a Stanford Ph.D. named Avery Wang co-founded, with a couple of business-school graduates, a tech start-up called Shazam. Their idea was to develop a service that could identify any song within a few seconds, using only a cellphone, even in a crowded bar or coffee shop. [1]

At first, Wang, who had studied audio analysis and was responsible for building the software, feared it might be an impossible task. No technology existed that could distinguish music from background noise, and cataloging songs note for note would require authorization from the labels. But then he made a breakthrough: rather than trying to capture whole songs, he built an algorithm that would create a unique acoustic fingerprint for each track. [1]

Shazam became available in 2002. (In the days before smartphones, users would dial a number, play the song through their phones, and then wait for Shazam to send a text with the title and artist.) Since then, it has been downloaded more than 500 million times and used to identify some 30 million songs, making it one of the most popular apps in the world. [1]

Shazam has also helped set off a revolution in the recording industry. While most users think of Shazam as a handy tool for identifying unfamiliar songs, it offers music executives something far more valuable: an early-detection system for hits. [1] By studying 20 million searches every day, Shazam can identify which songs are catching on, and where, before just about anybody else. “Sometimes we can see when a song is going to break out months before most people have even heard of it,” Jason Titus, Shazam’s former chief technologist, told me. [1]

Shazam searches are just one of several new types of data guiding the pop-music business. Concert promoters study Spotify listens to route tours through towns with the most fans, and some artists look for patterns in Pandora streaming to figure out which songs to play at each stop on a tour. [1]

The company has discovered that some metrics, such as Facebook likes, are unreliable indicators of a band’s trajectory, while others have uncanny forecasting power. “Radio exposure, unsurprisingly, is the most important thing,” Hu says. It remains the best way to introduce listeners to a new song; once they’ve heard it a few times on the radio, they tend to like it more. “But we discovered that hits to a band’s Wikipedia page are the second-best predictor.” Wikipedia searches are revealing for the same reason Shazam searches are. While getting a song on the radio ensures that people have heard it, Culbertson says, “Shazam tells you that people wanted to know more.”

to get a song on the radio in the first place, music labels confront a paradox: How do you prove that it will be a hit before anyone has heard it? DJs consider unfamiliar songs “tune-outs,” because audiences tend to spurn new music.

“The idea that DJs are just picking songs because they like them is so antiquated,” says Radha Subramanyam, the executive vice president of insights, research, and analytics at iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel), the nation’s largest owner of FM stations. To know when listeners are growing tired of a song, iHeartMedia conducts weekly surveys using a database of 1.5 million people.

A similar revolution has occurred in the music charts. Take the Billboard Hot 100, which has counted down the top songs in America since 1958. For decades, Billboard had to rely on record-store owners and radio stations to report the most-bought and most-played songs. Both parties lied, often because labels nudged or bribed them to plug certain records, or because store owners didn’t want to promote albums they no longer had in stock. The entire industry was biased toward churn: labels and stores wanted songs to enter and exit the charts quickly so they could keep selling new hits. [1]

The Hot 100 matters because it doesn’t just reflect listener preferences, it also shapes them. In a groundbreaking 2006 study on the influence of song rankings, three researchers at Columbia University showed that popularity can be a self-fulfilling prophecy. The researchers sent participants to different music Web sites where they could listen to dozens of tracks and download their favorites. Some sites displayed a ranking of the most-downloaded songs; others did not. Participants who saw rankings were more likely to listen to the most-popular tracks. [1] The researchers then wondered what would happen if they manipulated the rankings. In a follow-up experiment, some sites displayed the true download counts and others showed inverted rankings, where the least-popular song was listed in the No. 1 spot. The inverted rankings changed everything: previously ignored songs soared in popularity, and previously popular songs were ignored. Simply believing, even wrongly, that a song was popular made participants more likely to download it. [1]

Billboard replaced its honor system with hard numbers in 1991, basing its charts on point-of-sale data from cash registers. Around the same time, Billboard switched to monitoring radio airplay through Nielsen. When that happened, hip-hop and country surged in the rankings and old-fashioned rock slowly began to fade - suggesting that perhaps an industry dominated by white guys on the coasts hadn't paid enough attention to the music interests of urban minorities and southern whites. [1]

Another sea change came in the mid-2000s, when Billboard started tracking music streaming and downloads. Songs that weren’t label-picked singles, like the Black Eyed Peas’ “My Humps” in 2005, began outperforming the tracks that executives expected to do well. “Deep cuts”—songs that labels didn’t hype but that fans nonetheless loved—used to fly under the radar. (There is no evidence that Led Zeppelin’s “Stairway to Heaven,” one of the most famous rock songs of all time, was ever played on the radio in the years immediately after its release, and it never cracked the Hot 100.) [1]

Now that the Billboard rankings are a more accurate reflection of what people buy and play, songs stay on the charts much longer. The 10 songs that have spent the most time on the Hot 100 were all released after 1991, when Billboard started using point-of-sale data—and seven were released after the Hot 100 began including digital sales, in 2005. [1]

Because the most-popular songs now stay on the charts for months, the relative value of a hit has exploded. The top 1 percent of bands and solo artists now earn 77 percent of all revenue from recorded music, media researchers report. [1]

Radio stations, meanwhile, are pushing the boundaries of repetitiveness to new levels. According to a subsidiary of iHeartMedia, Top 40 stations last year played the 10 biggest songs almost twice as much as they did a decade ago. Robin Thicke’s “Blurred Lines,” the most played song of 2013, aired 70 percent more than the most played song from 2003, "When I’m Gone," by 3 Doors Down. [1] Even the fifth-most-played song of 2013, “Ho Hey,” by the Lumineers, was on the radio 30 percent more than any song from 10 years prior. [1]

In 2012, the Spanish National Research Council released a report that delighted music cranks around the world. Pop, it seemed, was growing increasingly bland, loud, and predictable, recycling the same few chord progressions over and over. The study, which looked at 464,411 popular recordings around the world between 1955 and 2010, found that the most-played music of the new millennium demonstrates "less variety in pitch transitions" than that of any preceding decade. [1]

The problem is not our pop stars. Our brains are wired to prefer melodies we already know. (David Huron, a musicologist at Ohio State University, estimates that at least 90 percent of the time we spend listening to music, we seek out songs we’ve heard before.) That’s because familiar songs are easier to process, and the less effort needed to think through something—whether a song, a painting, or an idea—the more we tend to like it. In psychology, this idea is known as fluency: when a piece of information is consumed fluently, it neatly slides into our patterns of expectation, filling us with satisfaction and confidence. [1]

“Things that are familiar are comforting, particularly when you are feeling anxious,” Norbert Schwarz, a psychology professor at the University of Southern California, who studies fluency, told me. “When you’re in a bad mood, you want to see your old friends. You want to eat comfort food. I think this maps onto a lot of media consumption. When you’re stressed out, you don’t want to put on a new movie or a challenging piece of music. You want the old and familiar.”

Perhaps one reason machines haven’t yet invaded the recording room is that listeners prefer rhythms that are subtly flawed. A 2011 Harvard study found that music performed by robotic drummers and other machines often strikes our ears as being too precise. “There is something perfectly imperfect about how humans play rhythms,” says Holger Hennig, the Harvard physics researcher who led the study. Hennig discovered that when experienced musicians play together, they not only make mistakes, they also build off these small variations to keep a live song from sounding pat. [1]

4   Industry

In order to succeed as an artist, the artist must make an album. Without an album, there can be no shows.

Producing an album is expensive. The most expensive partition is usually the cost to rent a studio and engineer. For a good studio, this is roughly $500 per day. The next largest cost is paying producers, which charge around $5000 per song. Mixing and master costing around $1250. Additionally, the artist themselves receive an advance, and there must be a travel budget for everyone involved (producers, songwriters, consultants, etc.). The total cost for a full length album is at least $100,000.

There is usually also a budget to market the album (possibly including music videos), which can easily be tens of thousands of dollars.

The music industry appears to me as very meritocratic. (Though I guess some pop-stars are manufactured.) At least in hip-hop, some people come from seriously hard backgrounds.


Amy X. Wang. August 8, 2018. How Musicians Make Money - Or Don't at all - in 2018.

Royalties are the sums paid to right-holders when their creations are sold, distributed, embedded in media, or monetized in any other way.

Every individual song is split into two separate copyrights: composition (lyrics, melody) and sound recording (literally, the audio recording of the song).

Sound recording copyrights are owned by recording artists and their record labels. There are further distinctions between different types of sound recording licenses that generate royalties, such as performance rights (for a song’s play on formats such as streaming services, AM/FM radio, satellite radio and Internet radio) and reproduction rights (for sales of physical CDs or digital music files) and sync rights (for song use in film, television and other media) — but for the most part, what matters is that this copyright only belongs to artists and whatever label is behind them.

Those parties may have nothing to do with the people who write the lyrics and melody of the song and thus own the composition copyright. Sometimes they’re one and the same, in which case that lucky party gets double the cash flow. If they’re separate — as is the case with most pop songs and chart-topping hits — the sound recording copyright is split between artists and record labels, while the composition copyright is split between whatever songwriters and publishers are involved. In the case of Counting Crows’ “Big Yellow Taxi,” for example, the band takes sound recording royalties but Joni Mitchell, the song’s original writer, gets composition royalties.

Putting music in film and television and commercials, a.k.a. “synchronization,” involves a license negotiated between content producers and publishers/songwriters. A fee is paid upfront, and royalties are also paid once the particular film or television show has been distributed and broadcast. Sync licenses can be lucrative and, because most filmmakers generally choose music based on their own whims rather than what’s at the top of the charts, also serve as a decent discovery platform for under-the-radar acts.

The process is further different for radio services, though, which typically use blanket, buffet-style licenses that determine payment rates on mass scale. And there’s an important distinction made in current copyright rules between broadcast radio (AM/FM) and Internet radio (Pandora, SiriusXM, other satellite radio and webcasters): Terrestrial radio broadcasters don’t have to pay sound recording copyright owners, while the second group does. That difference — which the music industry largely considers an unfair loophole — means that whenever a song is played over the airwaves, it only makes money for its writers, not artists.

Live events are quickly shaping up to be the most lucrative space for musicians in the digital-music era, and for good reason: As listeners become inundated with cheap access to music provided by streaming services, dedicated music fans crave more intimate experiences with their favorite artists.

While album sales dwindle and streams may only pay out fractions of a cent at a time, live shows — be it tours, festivals or one-off concerts — are commanding some of the highest ticket prices ever.

In the heyday of pop and rock, musicians rarely wanted to be associated with corporate brands, but that’s changing with the rise of rap as America’s most popular genre. Brand partnerships offer artists the ability to sponsor or endorse a brand they might genuinely like, and get access to an additional revenue stream while they’re at it. Another way musicians find side money is from YouTube monetization, wherein YouTube videos share in the profit from the ads that come tagged onto them. Psy’s “Gangnam Style” reportedly made $2 million from 2 billion YouTube views. YouTube’s head of music Lyor Cohen wrote in a blog post last year that YouTube’s payout rate in the U.S. is as high as $3 per 1000 streams.

Selling non-music products like perfumes, paraphernalia and clothing lines is an easy money-making strategy that artists have been taking advantage of for decades — but in the digital era, musicians can also get creative with their methods, expanding well beyond traditional merch tents at concerts and posters on a website.

By recent research estimates, U.S. musicians only take home one-tenth of national industry revenues. When you end up tracing all the dollars, around 10 percent of it gets captured by the artist. “That’s amazingly low,” Citigroup’s media, cable and satellite researcher Jason Bazinet tells Rolling Stone.

4.1   Concerts

Ticketmaster has been around since 1976. They were the first company to really make a serious push into online ticket sales. They acquired a few software-focused companies in 2008, and went around and signed long-term, exclusive, primary-ticketing deals with every single major venue in the country (and later many other places in the world as well). They've been able to skirt around numerous close encounters with anti-trust regulators over the years.

If they wanted to lock down ticket re-sale, similar to airlines, they definitely could implement that. Instead, their business model is basically: Twist the entire live-event-ticketing industry into a massive consumer-manipulation scheme, legally. Take all the blame from consumers, and share the huge profits with everyone: sports teams, venues, promoters, music artists, other performers, ticket resale brokers, online payment processors, online anti-fraud software companies, ad-tech companies, etc.

Face Value

The first step of this whole thing is to market every event with a basic value-anchoring price, called "face value." This number is primarily used to signal relative value to consumers for what tier of quality the ticket is, based on venue/event/seat/etc. Market price (the highest that consumers are willing to pay and still sell out the event, supply == demand) for the ticket is only a tiny factor here, and really only comes into play with major, major demand, like Bieber/Adele shows, or massively popular Broadway shows. In general, they leave most of the extra value to be scrapped off the secondary market, which they completely created and work very hard to support and maintain while digging in their claws further and further.

Pre Sales

Once face value and promotion/planning is in place, large blocks of tickets are siphoned off the inventory before anything goes on the public market anywhere. Artists/teams receive big chunks of the so-called "premium" seats to do what they want with. Radio giveaways, corporate perks, employee bonuses, etc. Many even sell these blocks directly to ticket brokers at marked-up prices. The brokers re-list these tickets on the secondary market. Venues get some tickets, promoters get some tickets, everyone dips into the inventory bucket to some extent here. I would guess that promotion companies also pay for services to list tickets directly on the secondary market for a nominal fee. Something like an NBA team would just work with the NBA directly who have their own in house services for all of this stuff, including verified re-selling on the secondary market.

You also have general "pre sales" here. American Express gets a chunk of inventory to sell in an exclusive pre-sale, things like that.

You would be surprised just how large a chunk of the total inventory is accounted for during this phase. For large/super-popular events it can be up to somewhere around 85-90% of all the inventory.

Primary Open Sale

This is where they make a token showing of opening up a slow, out of date ticket sales website with the rest of the inventory that's left over. There are some bots buying here, but Ticketmaster doesn't really care at all. They don't even police anything here. It's only when the government, like city/state attorneys general, take notice of large operations does anyone ever get caught/punished (e.g. Ticket Brokers Pay $4.2 Million to Settle Case With New York's Attorney General). So a bunch here still end up on the secondary market anyways. This is why it happens even a lot of times (though not all) for some small band you like playing a tiny venue, especially if you live in a big city.

Secondary Market: Brokers

Here's where things get interesting. The secondary ticket market is kind of like a giant, distributed, open, trading platform for anyone to buy and sell and try to make money. It just happens that the commodity in play are live event tickets. So you kind of just have a specialized commodity market with non-durable goods. Ticket brokers (and some small percentage of actual fans/consumers) act as the sources of inventory here. They use whatever means necessary to acquire inventory: building relationships with venues/promoters, entering every single pre-sale they can find, infiltrating every single prominent fan club that they can find and figuring out how to game whatever contest they have to give away inventory, run software bots to scrape primary sales sites (especially any shitty, small-time competitors to Ticketmaster who don't have the required software security resources yet), etc.

Interlude: Optional 'fun' further reading

  • TicketMaster Wiki
  • Why You Can’t Get a Ticket to the NBA Finals - Ringer article written by the Ticketmaster CEO from 2010-2013, article written in 2016
  • The Concert Ticket Industry Is Still Broken - 2017

Secondary Market: White Label Sites

Many brokers run their own white-label ticket sales websites, provided by company's "affiliate" programs, (for example: 1, 2, 3)

These sites primary function as link-back destinations for listings forwarded to more prominent secondary marketplaces, and to be scraped up by ticket listing aggregator sites.

Secondary Market: Marketplace Websites

Marketplaces are companies with more fleshed-out ticket listing websites that provide easy API access, plus integrations with centralized ticket inventory management systems. They act as clearing houses for the secondary market transactions. In exchange for charging fees to the sellers and/or the buyers of tickets, they provide the centralized listings, they use every single ad scheme you can think of on every available channel on the internet, they do payment processing and execution, they help handle shipping, they cover fraud with centralized anti-fraud systems like credit card address verification services, etc.

Ticketmaster double-dips here with their fingers in companies like Tickets Now. The primary source doesn't seem to exist anymore, but here's an old consumerist post discussing it.

Secondary Market: Aggregators

Aggregators are sites that sometimes scrape other ticket sales sites, and mostly interface directly with APIs to get access to open inventory listings. This is what SeatGeek started out doing, but they've moved on to direct secondary listings, and even some primary ticketing deals now.

Secondary Market: Barcodes and Weak Attempts at Fan Verification

The secondary market is totally digital and online. Individual tickets are linked to specific barcodes that are used to validate the ticket with the primary seller (oh, hi again, Ticketmaster). This allows Ticketmaster to maintain full control over the inventory even while it's being spread throughout the secondary market. Ticketmaster allows things in certain cases, like a primary ticket holder getting a barcode for a ticket re-issued, invalidating any existing barcodes for that seat.

Some events started doing things where they would require the credit card that purchases the tickets to be physically scanned at the gate to get in with the electronic tickets. The ticket industry easily defeated this measure instantly by buying prepaid visa gift cards, and using those to buy the tickets, then shipping the gift cards with zero balance to the final buyers. I think some of this can be done electronically, not sure.

Secondary Market: Speculative Listings and Denied Entry

Ticket Brokers maintain there reputation by keeping a low rate of "invalid barcodes." They are generally punished by the Marketplaces with penalties up to 200% of the total secondary market sale price for any tickets where the final buyer has their barcode invalidated by Ticketmaster. 99% of the time they only find out about this when the ticket scanner buzzes at them the wrong way at the gate to the event after they drove 5 hours and stood in line outside in the cold for 2 hours. Marketplaces call this a "denied entry." These companies usually put a lot of resources into customer service, often having many live, local, directly employed phone operators waiting for all of these panicked calls from people standing at the gate to their event. They try to find and buy other tickets for the customer to get them into the event, and then they charge the seller the price difference plus a huge fee. The Marketplaces don't pay out to the sellers until after the events take place, outside of some exclusively negotiated deals for "premier" or "trusted" sellers who maintain a certain reputation.

Many Brokers engage in a practice known as Speculative Listing. They use inventory software to set up planned listings for events, before they've even acquired the inventory. This is how you get soooo much inventory listed on secondary market sites moments after an event sale opens, or sometimes in advance of that, even. Since the brokers only need to make sure and get the tickets to the buyer by the event date, there isn't a huge amount of pressure usually here. Sales often open up months before the event dates.

Secondary Market: Verified Resellers

When the primary promoter or venue or whoever wants to try and make more money on the secondary market, they set up a "verified reseller" program. These claim to be the only source of barcodes guaranteed by the primary seller, but in practice they seem to be mostly just marketing fluff (for example). They don't really do much to block re-sales on the Marketplace sites. It's also just another blatant double-dip by Ticketmaster, like the "Official Resale Marketplace of the NBA", with the official "ticketmaster verified" mark, is just a TicketsNow page, and TicketsNow is a subsidiary of Ticketmaster.

"The Consumer" (You)

So, given all that, what can you do? Hold everyone in the industry accountable, don't let Ticketmaster draw in 100% of the blame with their giant black hole of suck. Support artists like Kid Rock and Bruce Springsteen who choose to keep adding more shows to their tours until real market prices actually descend to what they advertise as face value. These guys literally just keep adding more show dates until the secondary market profit margins shrivel up and die. This is real change. I think this will be the next big thing in the music industry at least, if more artists want to actually take action on their words against the "evil ticket scalpers." Acknowledge their true market value and set prices to match, or else add enough dates that supply increases to lower market price to what the fans want.


  • Scalpers/Brokers don't "control" the supply of tickets, the artist or team or whoever does. There are a fixed number of seats in the arena. The primary promoter is the only one who can choose to increase the supply, by adding more performances.
  • Everyone is complicit in the whole thing, nobody is "scamming" or "cheating the system." The entire industry is set up to legally exploit consumers.
  • Don't let Ticketmaster take all the blame. Give 'em all you've got for creating and enabling the whole thing, sure, but save some hate for everyone else involved also. Even your favorite band frontman who rails against "scalpers" on twitter, yet only tours 12, one-night-only dates in 12 cities every 3 years.

5   Further reading

6   Turntables

7   References

[1](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18) Derek Thomspon .The Shazam Effect.

In the absence of significant income from album sales, artists can make a respectable living through touring and merchandising. This path isn't going to work for songwriters.

Record labels bargain to get bands a fair deal from streaming apps.

Convert mp3 to MIDI:

ffmpeg -i SONG.mp3 SONG.wav
waon -i SONG.wav -o SONG.mid
timidity SONG.mid