Europe

Europe is one of the seven continents.

Contents

1   Geography

The Mediterranean was formed 5 million years ago via a giant flood called the Zanclean megaflood, during which the Atlantic Ocean filled the sea.

2   Countries

2.1   Monaco

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Monaco compared to Newark airport.

Monaco is a country in Europe.

3   History

3.1   Middle Age

What were their primary weapons?

Heavy lances and spears, because they were most effective while on horseback. Sometimes poleaxes, maces and other clubbing tools. Weapons like the sword don't take full advantage of the charging power of heavy cavalry and were used as a backup weapon in actual combat. Against an armored opponent they are mostly ineffective unless you can exploit weak spots in armor.

3.2   World War I

World War I was known as the first world war until WW2, then it was the first world war.

3.3   World War II

France 1940. From "Why We Fight".

Adolf Hitler, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Tito, Sigmund Freud and Joseph Stalin all lived in Vienna in January, 1913.

The war was initiated by Italy and Germany.


World War II deaths (millions)

Soviet Union: 26 China: 15 Germany: 6.9 Poland: 5.9 Japan: 2.5 India: 1.6 France: 0.6 UK: 0.45 US: 0.42

4   References

Learned tomes by historians, economists, political scientists and other scholars fill many bookshelves with explanations of how and why the process of modern economic growth or ‘the Great Enrichment’ exploded in western Europe in the 18th century. One of the oldest and most persuasive explanations is the long political fragmentation of Europe.

In brief, Europe’s political fragmentation spurred productive competition. The economic historian Eric L Jones called this ‘the States system’. The costs of European political division into multiple competing states were substantial: they included almost incessant warfare, protectionism, and other coordination failures. Many scholars now believe, however, that in the long run the benefits of competing states might have been larger than the costs.

The rivalries between the states, and their examples to one another, also meliorated some of the worst possibilities of political authoritarianism. David Hume and Immanuel Kant for example, saw it the same way. From the early 18th-century reforms of Russia’s Peter the Great, to the United States’ panicked technological mobilisation in response to the Soviet Union’s 1957 launch of Sputnik, interstate competition was a powerful economic mover. More important, perhaps, the ‘states system’ constrained the ability of political and religious authorities to control intellectual innovation. If conservative rulers clamped down on heretical and subversive (that is, original and creative) thought, their smartest citizens would just go elsewhere (as many of them, indeed, did).

A possible objection to this view is that political fragmentation was not enough. The Indian subcontinent and the Middle East were fragmented for much of their history, and Africa even more so, yet they did not experience a Great Enrichment.

The size of the market mattered. Writing a book or producing a steam engine involved fixed costs.

Long before the term ‘Europe’ was commonly used, it was called ‘Christendom’.

While for much of the Middle Ages the intensity of intellectual activity (in terms of both the number of participants and the heatedness of the debates) was light compared to what it was to become, after 1500 it was transnational. In early modern Europe, national boundaries mattered little in the thin but lively and mobile community of intellectuals in Europe. Despite slow and uncomfortable travel, many of Europe’s leading intellectuals moved back and forth between states.

If Europe’s intellectuals moved with unprecedented frequency and ease, their ideas travelled even faster. Through the printing press and the much-improved postal system, written knowledge circulated rapidly. In the relatively pluralistic environment of early modern Europe, especially in contrast with East Asia, conservative attempts to suppress new ideas floundered.

Galileo’s ‘banned’ books were quickly smuggled out of Italy and published in Protestant cities. For example, his Discorsi was published in Leiden in 1638, and his Dialogo was re-published in Strasbourg in 1635. Spinoza’s publisher, Jan Riewertz, placed ‘Hamburg’ on the title page of the Tractatus to mislead censors, even though the book was published in Amsterdam.

Furthermore, some inventions still needed inputs from learned people even if they cannot be said to be purely science-driven. For instance, the marine chronometer, one of the most important inventions of the era of the Industrial Revolution (though rarely mentioned as a part of it) was made possible through the work of earlier mathematical astronomers. The first one was the 16th-century Dutch (more accurately Frisian) astronomer and mathematician Jemme Reinerszoon, known as Gemma Frisius, who suggested the possibility of what John Harrison (the ingenious watchmaker who cracked this thorny problem) actually did in 1740.


Most of Japan's money is owed to itself, and in Yen. So if the value of the Yen falls...the debt is still basically the same. And it's Japanese citizens and Japanese banks that own most of the debt. Japan only has to answer to Japan. And Japan has enough money and is rich enough to pay off all its debt and to pay for what it needs. If the country needs more money, it can get it from the Japanese people and banks. Greece had debts in the Euro. It's debts were controlled by foreigners. The Greek economy went bad, and it was German and French banks that wanted money back. The economy went down and it couldn't pay its citizens or the debt. And it couldn't get more money from its own citizens. The UK, after the Napoleonic Wars, had a debt to GDP ratio of over 250%. And it was almost 250% after WW2. It's not about the size of the debt, it's about the ability to make the payments. Japan is rich; Greece was poor.


It's because "-mearc" is a postfix in Nordic & Germanic languages that means "territory of". Denmark is "Territory of the Danes"; Finnmark is "Territory of the Finns".